They really don’t, at least once in place, aside from potentially shading plants that once grew beneath them. Solar panels do not “take away” the sun from the plants, UV energy from the sun is not a finite resource.
The large-scale building of solar panels, however, is quite an industry, and unless more steps are taken to make the production process more sustainable, it has as much of an impact on the natural environment (including plant life) as any other large production industry.
Plants and solar panels both use (and would compete for) the same energy source – the sun. The solar panels shade whatever’s behind them, so plants can’t grow under/behind them really, except some hardy shade-loving ones that do not need direct sunlight. And trees around photovoltaics would end up shading them with branches and so reducing their energy production. It is usually not a problem though – you get the most insolation and so the best energy production by panels in deserts where there aren’t many plants anyway. Using rooftop panels won’t kill any plants either.
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