Sinkholes usually happen in areas where there is frequent water exposure and the type of rocks the lie beneath the soil, usually sinkholes happen with soft minerals and rocks like salt, gypsum, limestone, and dolomite, for example. These rocks become eroded by water and there is nothing to support the soil and road above, so it crumbles. Sinkholes usually develop in places where there is soft bedrock and/or frequent rain/marshy terrain.
A sinkhole is a naturally forming hole or depression in the earth’s surface caused by subsurface activity, such as cave collapse, a lowering of the water table, or the chemical dissolution of carbonate rocks (this means that bedrock layers such as limestone can be dissolved by percolating water). The subsurface layer collapses, either quickly or gradually, and then the surface is sure to follow shortly thereafter, creating the sinkhole.
Sinkholes can be hazards that cause damage to nearby property and disrupt utility and transportation services. Sinkholes can form naturally or as a consequence of human activity. They usually occur in areas where there is limestone underground, karst topography (landscape formed by the process of limestone dissolution over a large area), or other porous rock formations. Sinkholes are subsidence features that form after downward movement of surface material. Subsidence can occur due to underground weathering of bedrock material or as a result of underground mining, excessive groundwater pumping or faulty utility lines. Sinkholes form over a long period of time, as the support for the land surface gradually sinks. Finally the land surface will collapse leaving a hole or a cavity and it can happen rapidly. Any surface materials would move down into the hole.
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