There are many different species of penguins just as there are different species of canines or wildcats. Each have minute adaptations that allow them to live in various climates. While you are right that most penguins prefer colder climates, warm weather penguins have exposed areas of pinkish skin on their face, legs and feet that allows them to keep cool when it gets hot. Additionally, warm weather penguins will spend a lot of time in underground burrows and in the water to keep cool.
The Galapagos penguins are able to survive due to the cool temperatures resulting from the Humboldt Current and cool waters from great depths brought up by the Cromwell Current. The Humboldt Penguin resides on the coast of Peru and Chile and is named after the cool current. African penguins also have some adaptions to deal with the heat. Those cute, pink “eyebrows” on an African penguin are actually featherless patches with lots of blood vessels underneath. When a penguin gets too hot, these patches get brighter as the animal circulates blood there to dissipate heat.
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