Nutrients enter your bloodstream through the digestion process. When you consume food or drinks, your body breaks down the molecules and nutrients in them through a series of complex chemical reactions. Digestive juices (salvia, stomach acid, pancreatic fluids, etc.) contain enzymes which initiate chemical reactions once they encounter complex food molecules that need to be broken down. As the nutrients are digested, they are carried through the digestive track by muscular contractions.
Once the molecules have been reduced to simpler parts, they are primarily absorbed into the bloodstream in the small intestine. Nutrients are first absorbed into the lining of the intestine by villi and microvilli, which are “tiny fingerlike projections,” that coat the lining (or mucosa) of the intestine. Then, specialized cells transport the absorbed molecules from the mucosa into the blood, “where they are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change.” Note that different nutrients (carbohydrates, protein, fats, and vitamins) are each broken down absorbed into the blood a bit differently. Details on their specific breakdowns can be found at: http://digestive.niddk.nih.gov/ddiseases/pubs/yrdd/.
While the majority of nutrients do enter through the digestive process as described above, one exception is the synthesis of vitamin D in the skin, from which it then enters the bloodstream. This synthesis occurs following a reaction of 7-dehydrocholesterol to ultraviolet sunlight.
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