I did a couple of different searches, and it appears that the biggest thing hospitals do to prepare for disasters is prepare. They are constantly training staff, planning, and creating protocol for all manner of disasters. Often systems are put in place to help staff quickly and efficiently communicate all kinds of information from patient status to the kind of emergency being faced. Different kinds of alerts, colored wrist tags, and emergency responsibilities assigned to staff members are a few examples. Some hospitals even hire emergency coordinators to help create and implement plans in case of disasters. You can see one hospital disaster plan at the link below, published by the National Nurse Emergency Preparedness Initiative.
Within the US, hospitals prepare internally, but also regionally. States are divided into RETACs (Regional Emergency Medical and Trauma Advisory Councils) that drill and work together. A link to the Colorado RETACs is below. Systems such as EMResourse provide ways for hospitals to easily find out what is going on at other hospitals – how many beds are available, are all units open, weather conditions, etc.
Additionally, hospitals prepare risk analyses for what could happen internally (i.e., roof damages, loss of heat, etc) and externally (blizzards, terrorists, etc) and work hard to prepare for all the possibilities they can think of.
Hospitals use the ICS system in emergencies. Pre-written and trained Emergency Operations Plans discuss use of radios (frequencies), designates areas for triage, and various care of patients, how to track patients who are transferred to other hospitals, and more. NIMS (the National Incident Management System) training and resources are also used.
The second link below is an excellent link from California about hospital preparedness.
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