The Galapagos penguin is the most northerly-occuring penguin in the world. They are more duck-like than most other penguins. Researchers believe they got to the Galapagos islands via the Humboldt current. The Humboldt current brings cold water (and the nutrients within it) up from the Antarctic. This cold water is helpful for the penguins. When it gets too warm (due to El Nino), the penguin populations decline. Basically, the penguins survive on the equator because of the cooler water brought by the Humboldt current and they rely on what the weather is doing any given year.
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