It’s water seeping down through the soil and permeable layers of rock. Eventually the water hits a layer of rock it cannot pass through, and begins to gather. Erosion or tectonic activity or other factors can carve out caverns, which serve as natural gathering places for the water. Also, sometimes as sea levels change, preexisting cave systems could become flooded. There are a wide variety of geological factors, I’m sure, but the gist of it is that water seeps down and hits a a layer it cannot penetrate, so it gathers. Check out the citation for an in-depth exploration of the various ways caves can form and fill with water.
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