Some have stingers, like bees and wasps, and some excrete smelly/bad tasting liquids, like ladybugs, to make themselves less appetizing.
And by camouflage and mimicry, scary appearance, hiding, etc.
Colors also play a big role in protection. Red, yellow, and black are “stay away” colors in nature – it doesn’t matter if the animal or insect is poisonous or not. Just the fact the creature looks like another creature that is poisonous is enough to deter predators. Colors also can help camouflage the insect or animal.
The ladybug uses several methods. First, their coloring warns predators to stay away. Ladybugs will also play dead and emit a foul odor. They achieve this by laying “turtle-style” and releasing blood (and odor) from their legs.
Here is an example of how an insectcan protect itself against predators with camouflage. While some insects have coloration that will help them disappear into grass or leaves, others are actually shaped like plants/bark, etc. Below is a flower mantid, whose body is shaped like flower petals.
Some insects actually use their feces as a method of defense, relying on chemicals found within their feces to deter predators. Chrysomelidae beetle larva weave their feces into a sort of “shield”, though the defense is chemical rather than physical since it is chemicals in the “shield” that turn away predators rather than the actual physical defense of the shield itself.
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