The answer may disappoint you: They aren’t really blade-less, at least if you’re talking about the Dyson Air Multiplier, one of the earlier models. The Dyson model has blades inside the lower canister that are hidden from view and rotate with a brush-less motor. Its really not that far from the technology we’re familiar with. The biggest difference is the look and safety. The spinning blades within the canister route the air up through the ring to distribute it evenly. The result is a somewhat smoother fan that costs hundreds of dollars.
To answer this question, I will use the Dyson Bladeless Fan as an example. An electronic element is the secret. While the tube doesn’t have any blades inside it, the pedestal of the fan contains a brushless electric motor that takes in air and feeds it into the circular tube. Air flows along the inside of the device until it reaches a slit inside the tube. This provides the basic airflow that creates the breeze you’d feel if you stood in front of the fan. Dyson claims that the Air Multiplier generates a breeze with 15 times more air than what the device actually takes in. If you follow the link, Dyson offers a video which describes how their fan works in further detail.
The Dyson bladeless fan works because it actually has nine hidden blades in its pedestal which draw air in from outside the fan. The air then goes up through a channel in the pedestal into the hollow round tube and comes out through slits in the back of the fan. By the clever positioning of these slits, air comes out across the tube and towards the front of the fan. Through a clever use of the laws of physics, air behind the fan and along the fan’s edges is also induced to come through the center of the tube.
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