Many of the bird species that thrive in cities are grain eating species or generally omnivorous. Grain eating species such as pigeons and english house sparrows eat scraps of food and garbage, as do larger foraging type species such as ravens and seagulls. Seagulls also benefit from the ability to travel long distances on warm updrafts. Cities create updrafts from the heat island effect, allowing seagulls to travel with little effort. Pigeons and sparrows are able to nest in very small spaces under bridges and in abandoned buildings.
Many bird species that live in cities are opportunistic, meaning they will essentially eat what food is available to them. Many thrive because they eat food that is thrown out in trash cans, get fed by humans, or have food sources nearby. The absence of trees isn’t always a problem when birds can hide on or under buildings and houses. Many nest in the overhangs of buildings.
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