The Romans were pioneers of concrete. They also introduced columns and arches, expanding possibilities from the tradtional post-and-lintel buildings. This allowed them to build bigger. Concrete had another advantage in that is was relatively water and fireproof, allowing for the aqueducts.
The Romans were master masons. They had many feats of architectural grandeur that seems too advanced for the age.
In their construction they employed the use of massive amounts of travertine marble and concrete structures. One that didn’t show wear from the stress of tons of material sitting upon them. In addition to the material they had some tricks of geometric planning that enabled them to build massive structures like the coliseum. They would build a series of arches that distribute the weight of the stone above it extremely well. They used timber to help support the stones while the added a mortar made from volcanic ash on onto the stones.
To lift the actual stones, which were extremely heavy, they employed their sophisticated construction technology. They had knowledge of pulleys and crane-like devices. Ropes with winches wrapped around gears and attached to large wheels or other could be pulled using oxen or men. In this way they could do something that seems impossible. All the mathematical and theoretical physics elements were not known to them but they learned through empirical exercise.
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