How did the Mediterranean change during the Holocene?



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    The Halocene age began apx 12,000 years ago and, according to some schools of thought, continues to this day. The name itself can be roughly translated as “entirely recent” — which makes sense as regards the traditional geological thought that the age continues to this day.  We do know that at the beginning of the Halocene age the oceans rose apx 110 feet, and that the temperature in the Mediterranean cooled by apx two degrees C. 

    In an article on soil erosion Pamela Collins,, Jed Kaplan, and Basil Davis contend that there was a period about 6,000 years ago during which the Mediterranean made a forest-to-scrub transition.

    Other research indicates some change in costal change (especially at the Tiber River Delta).   According to research by WJ Eastwood (and co.), pollen data shows that the area was drier conditions than at present.  Those drier conditions may have led to the collapse of Subir a “rain-fed agricultural civilization of northern Mesopotamia” around 2200 BC. (

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