Carbon dioxide emissions caused by climate change are lowering the pH levels of the ocean, causing the water to become more acidic. This alters the food chains of marine animals by causing phytoplankton to disappear, which is the food source of many marine animals. This website has a list of ocean animals and the effects of global warming on them individually.
The disappearance of phytoplankton that kristennoelle mentioned is probably the most dire effect of climate change on oceans. Climate change also causes coral bleaching, which leads to mass die-offs of coral. At least 25% of all marine life depends on coral reefs for survival, and if the reefs go, so do they.
Warmer temperatures are also causing species to try living out of their usual home range.
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