The chemical formulas are different. Carbon monoxide is one carbon and one oxygen (CO) while carbon dioxide is one carbon and two oxygens (CO2). Their chemical properties are also different, although they are both a gas. One is a byproduct of respiration by animals (carbon dioxide), and the other can kill you (carbon monoxide) if you breathe too much in becase it can irreversibly bind to your Heme groups in your red blood cells.
Source (chemistry and anatomy instruciton in college).
First of all, they are different because of their chemical compositions. Carbon dioxide has two oxygens whereas carbon monoxide has only one oxygen, as can be seen from their names “mono” and “dio.” Both are extremely dangerous to humans when exposed for a long time or to a lot of it.
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