Studies have shown that higher education, higher standards of living, and the increased social mobility and choices that these entail decrease birth rates. This is particularly due to the empowerment of women, especially in the domain of reproductive rights. This effect has been so drastic in industrial countries that population growth is actually negative and we have an aging population. So I propose education and empowerment (especially of woman) in developing countries as the best way to curb overpopulation.
I think the institution of different cultural norm would drastically improve the situation. Many religions and lifestyles advocate having many children as a way to respect life by creating it. However, such lifestyle choices are ultimately unsustainable and, while in some ways admirably, do need to be curbed given our present circumstances. Like the commenter above, I believe that the easiest way to institute new social norms is through education and societal progress towards equal standards of living.
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