Many mammals have adapted to living underground and burrowing where it is much cool. Any animal living in desert has to have a gut that is able to excrete almost dry fecal material and a kidney that draws minimum water from blood. There are “summer hibernates” that minimize their metabolic rates in summer to avoid water lost through respiration.Some mammals, like hares, have large ears densely populated with blood vessels to remove heat.
Desert Carnivores obtain water from their preys. As the dog and cat families lack sweat glands, they remove heat by panting which in turn creates further water loss. as a result, they are mostly found at the desert margins near a permanent water source.
Coyotes, foxes, peccaries, ring tailed cats, antelope, skunks, mule deer, boars, lions and elephants (in some regions) are all examples of animals that have adapted to desert life. They learn to adapt and conserve energy, water, and food. Some animals have special eyelids to see through sandstorms and camels (are the best at adapting to desert climates) stores fat in its hump and long legs to keep sand away from its body.
Interestingly, spadefoot toads can live in the desert. They burrow below the ground when it is hot and dry and remain there until it begins to rain. Then the toads emerge, mate, and lay their eggs in temporary pools of water. The tadpoles develop very quickly to frogs. If rains do not come one year the toads can remain underground and wait for another season!
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