Depending on the type of crop and amount of water in the soil at the time, you can determine the quantity of water needed by your crop.
The type of irrigation method you adopt is also another determinant factor. Whatever be the case the use of sprinklers (overhead irrigation) tends to conserve water while keeping the field always wet but not waterlogged if controlled properly.
See several previous answers.
As always, it depends on the crop. But in general, water saving techniques include: more effective irrigation (drip emitters, or watering early in the morning, are two examples); proper use of mulch; and creating a healthy soil that maintains the right amount of moisture while also providing drainage.
In some places they are illegal, however, you can invest in rain collection barrels. You plae the barrels under a downspout from your roof, catch the rain, and use this collected water for your garden.
You can also catch the water from your shower or bath. When you are waiting for the water to get warm enough for bathing, all that cold water goes down the drain. If it is collected it can be used for watering a garden, as well.
Adding biochar as a soil amendment will help retain water in the soil in addition to providing other nutritional benefits to the plants. Biochar also, “scrubs” the atmosphere of CO2, which is good for all living things.
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