Protecting plants with floating row covers keeps plants protected from aphids while allowing air, light, and moisture to reach the plants. This strategy is best for young plants; the row covers can be removed when plants grow too large. Another method is attracting insects that repel aphids, such as ladybugs.
You can use a steady stream of water to knock them off of your plants or use eco-friendly/ organic products to kill the aphids (Bonide Rotenone-Pyrethrins kill aphids on contact without harming humans, plants or the environment).
If it’s outdoor or indoor potted plants you’re having a problem with, you can mix some dish soap with water and put the mix into a spray bottle. Spray your plant’s leaves (especially the underside) and stems. The soap breaks down the outside layer of an aphid’s body and dehydrates them. Then spray your plant well with plain water until all the soapy water has been removed, to protect your plant from the harmful effects of soap. You can also use rubbing alcohol, and this just evaporates from the plant. I’ve even just meticulously squished every last one twice a week until they just stopped appearing on the plant. This was the most effective for me, but it can depend on how easy your plant is to go through.
Introduce some ladybugs to your garden, they will eat all the aphids! And they are cute. One ladybug can eat around 1,000 aphids a day! Larvae of ladybugs can eat about half as much.
An eco friendly method can be to add
1 cup vegetable oil, 2 cups water, and 2 teaspoons dish soap without bleach.
This method will suffocate the aphids, though you risk burning the plants so do this as the sun sets.
You can also attract other insects that will be happy to snack on your aphids. Simply bringing these bugs into the garden may help a bit, but attracting them is a better idea. Plant mint or fennel and dandelions to attract ladybugs. Planting garlic and onions may also be a good choice as the smell usually detracts aphids.
Another great idea from the website below is to actually plant vegetation that attracts aphids away from the plants you wish to keep aphid-free. Some of these plants include dahlias, mums, or zinnias.
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