Earthquakes are not the result of the spread of water diseases.
If you meant how can earthquakes contribute to the spread of water diseases, one way is through breaking of water mains and pipes allowing contaminants to enter; water reservoirs can have sediment stirred up producing potential problems; water treatment plants can be damaged or destroyed. When any of these interfere with proper dealing with sewage, untreated human excrement and other refuse becomes present in the environment, a great warehouse for germs.
If the earthquake occurs in a place already in tough times, water-borne diseases can become a big issue. The simple lack of water is the first issue, people desperate for water will take what they can get, and these sources can become contaminated quickly. People piled into camps and refugee sites, already stressed, injured, or ill, all contribute to the risk of the spread to cholera and dysentery by sharing water sources, or drinking from sources not segregated from places of defecation.
Water diseases are an indirect result of earthquakes. Damaged water and sewage lines allow for easy contamination of drinking water. Disrupted sanitation services and sewage treatment are other sources of water-borne diseases.
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