One way wouuld be to adopt passive cooling and passive solar heating, methods of keeping a building either cool or warm without relying on electrical consumption.
Passive cooling would require the installation of solar chimneys, ventilation systems or even roof ponds to keep a building cool.
Four things to consider: south facing glass, shading, insulation and themal mass.
Buildings can be naturally cooled by keeping sunlight from directly hitting the windows. Overhangs that provide shade outside of a building will also keep it cooler inside. Similarly, trellises and plants that provide shade will also help keep buildings cool. These should be used over windows that have the most solar impact – for example, in the northern hemisphere awnings over southern windows can be helpful. For east and west facing windows, tinted glass and exterior shade screens can be effective in keeping out most of the late morning/early afternoon heat. Light colors in painting and building materials will also reflect heat away from the building.
The way buildings are designed can help tremendously with keeping the occupants cool or warm. Building designs which take the climate and surrounding landscape into account will have a greater success in shielding inhabitants from either being too hot or too cold. For example high ceilings in southern homes result in cooler rooms. While houses which are well insulated contain heat for persons hoping to escape the winter cold. Material with high thermal mass (brick, stone, ceramic tile) hold onto “solar gain” in the winter and displace heat in the summer.
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