How are waterfalls formed?



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    Waterfalls are formed when a river flows over a ledge, and there is no impediment to keep the water flowing vertically.  These types of rivers are oftentimes located in the mountains where the river is a runoff of glacial melting.  The impediment of rock is eventually eroded away due to the rapid water, because of layers of both hard and soft layers (the soft layers erode away).  Caves at the bottom of waterfalls can occur due to this type of erosion as well. 

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