How are undigested nutrients in a vacuole made available to a cell?



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    Unfortunately, you didnt specify if it is a plant or animal vacuole you are asking about, so I will answer this as it pertains to the animal vacuole which is also known as vesicle. I was actually excited to see this question because it directly relates to the popular saying ” you are what you eat” and even toxic nutrients can be stored in the vacuole for years and years protecting the cell from any harm, if at ant point cell is not capable to support its own balance (stress, constant bad diet, etc), vacuole releases toxins into the cell and it can become cancerous.

    So the animal vacuole can allow things in and get rid of them – these processes called endocytosis and exocytosis accordingly, so I will describe exocytosis since you asked about vacuole “expelling” nutrients: it is the extrusion process by which a cell directs secretory vesicles out of the cell. Proteins from the Golgi apparatus initially enter secretory granules, where processing of prohormones to the mature hormones occurs before exocytosis.

    Here is the exciting video I found on vacuole formation, check it out.

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