Sand dunes are formed when there is an area with lots of loose, dry sediment and moderate winds. As the wind blows, the sediment is stopped by some sort of obstacle like a rock or a tree. Overtime, the particles stack up, forming a mound that grows larger and larger until it actually becomes a dune.
There are several different types of dunes: crescentic, linear, star, dome, and blowout dunes. Crescentic dunes form when wind blows in the same direction, and have half-moon shapes:
Lateral dunes for when the wind blows in opposite directions, causing the sands to build up on both sides in a straight line:
Star dunes are pyramidal in shape because they form when winds blow in several different directions, building them up as opposed to out:
Blowout dunes form when harsh winds literally blow surface material away, leaving a bare depression:
I looked in several places for the formation of dome dunes, and the only info I could get was that they are very rare and their formation is not understood very well.
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