What is their negative impact on the environment and land.
I partially answered a very similar question earlier, but I wanted to add something: People driving on the roads may toss items out the window, like cigarette butts, plastic wrappings, fast food cups, or other clutter. In certain areas, this trash can pile up so greatly that restoration of the land can be quite difficult. The trash might also make its way into waterways, affecting the aquatic life. If an animal tries to eat a cigarette but along with other food waste remains on the side of the road, it could be poisoned and killed.
Roads have several potential negative impacts on the environment. Fundamentally, their purpose is to allow for human intervention (in vehicles no less) farther into areas where there was previously none. At its most basic function, roads (especially highways) serve to put humans into natural habitat.
There is a zero-sum tradeoff with the natural environment. Every mile of paved road literally means a mile where no natural habitat can exist. Plants and animals that would live there now do not. Also, every mile of road is another mile that will be crossed day and night by machines which increase carbon emissions. More roads necessarily means more cars and people on roads which means more pollution.
Cars also create noise pollution and increase the risk of roadkill. As more cars delve deeper into what was previously natural habitat many animals run the risk of being killed by cars, a number which increases as more roads are created.
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