Just a quick clarification; the Chile didn’t shorten the year. It shortened the length of a day– by about 1.26 milliseconds.
The kind of earthquake that makes the day shorter is called a thrust earthquake. One plate slides under another, drawing the Earth’s mass a little bit inward in one spot and causing the Earth to spin a bit faster. The analogy in the article below is a figure skater drawing in her arms as she spins to increase her speed.
Another quake that may have shortened the day by 6.8 milliseconds was the magnitude 9 quake in Sumatra in December 2004.
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