answered a couple hours ago.
Ethanol is the most widely used biofuel worldwide, both alone and as an additive. It is made from crops like corn or sugarcane, which are fermented and then distilled. There has been some controversy over how useful ethanol is as a replacement for gasoline given the environmental impacts involved in producing it.
Biodeisel is made by chemically combining vegetable oil or animal fat with an alcohol to create a fuel that can be used in converted deisel engines. While not emission free, biodiesel has been shown to produce about 78% less Co2 than regular petroleum diesel.
These are the two major biofuels in use today, there are many others either in development or simply not as a widely used.
No biofuels or ethanol fuel are really being used enough to make a dent in our oil usage. Modern society is still centered around the use of petroleum, not just for our energy/fuel needs, but also for producing many of the products we use on an everyday basis. There are many problems surrounding biofuel use and production: they are more expensive to produce, and more importantly, the effort and energy needed to produce them far exceeds their worth. Many have been found not to be sustainable, such as palm plantations which have been responsible for a wide range of deforestation of rainforests in Southeast Asia, and corn plantations in the South have been responsible for pollution in the form of pesticide, herbicide, and chemical fertilizers – all of which threaten the biodiversity in our soil and waterways. Additionally, some fear that strains of “super algae” being developed could threaten certain aquatic life forms such as fish if their spores escaped the laboratories in which they are produced. Some experts fear they could potentially dominate other, wild algae strains and wipe them out. Scientists have already developed about 4,000 strains of super algae that, if produced on a larger scale, would most likely be moved to large open ponds – a prospect that causes further concern for many experts and those opposed to biological engineering.
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