from evolution and genetics
Punnett squares are a great way to show how different genetic traits are passed down through generations. Let’s say for example that two black Labradors mate and have offspring. Each labrador has a dominant and recessive gene for coloration. B is the dominant gene that makes a Labrador black, and b is the gene that makes a Labrador golden. There is a 50/50 chance that each adult will pass on the recessive b gene to their offspring (25% chance of BB, 50% chance of Bb (or 75% chance of a black dog) and 25% chance of bb (golden coloration)).
If one Labrador was Bb and the other was BB, there would be no chance of their offspring inheriting the golden color, but one of their Bb pups may mate with another Bb dog and have a bb (golden) offspring.
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