They don’t. Like humans, marine mammals such as whales need fresh water to survive. Scientists are not sure how whales obtain fresh water, but they hypothesize that whales are able to extract it from the food they eat. To deal with the salt water they do ingest, marine mammals have kidneys that are specially adapted to filter out large amounts of salt.
In addition to the above answer, whales can remove salt directly from their blood, and they can get fresh water from the blubber created from the extra food intake.
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