For the asteroid-striking-the-earth-and-causing-layers-of-sun-blocking-dust-theory, scientists have the following evidence:
1. the 150 kilometer wide crater off the Yucatan Peninsula
2. Heightened amounts of Iridium in rock dating to the time period in which scientists believed the mass extinction occurred. Iridium is very rarely found on earth, but more commonly found in extraterrestrial rock.
3. Melted rock found hundreds of miles from its origin, meaning something powerful enough to melt and propel it must have occurred.
There are other theories that attribute the dinosaur extinction to volcanic activity, mammal competition, and continental drift, but at this point the asteroid theory has the most evidence.
I agree with what americalibre mentioned, the most prominent theory today is the asteroid theory. Having such an abrupt and drastic change to an environment will wipe out many species, since they are unable to adapt and change in time. There is also a lot of fossil evidence to support these claims.
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