Not exactly sure what you mean by the question, but if you’re wondering how long a seed will last before you plant it, perhaps this will help: http://www.seedforsecurity.com/article.php?articleid=55
Good conditions to store seeds in are cool and dry, and the lifespan of the seed will depend on what plant or vegetable it is. According to this site, lettuce and onion seeds can last one year, while carrots can last two or three.
It depends on the type of seeds you intend to use. If properly stored, many vegetable and fruit seeds such as asparagus, corn, carrots, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, rutabagas, spinach, pumpkins, tomatoes, or watermelon can last 2 to 4 years. Before you store seeds, however make sure to clean them carefully, washing them under clean water. Also to maintain their long shelf lives keep your seeds away from warm places so they do not get damp.
For a complete list of seeds shelf life refer to:
Seeds last long depending on how long you mean. It is necessary to consider the conditions that favour seeds to stay long without germinating or getting bad. Such conditions are; low moisture content (the level depends on the type of seed), adequate temperature, air and little or no humidity. The presence of high moisture makes seed to break their dormancy and they tend to germinate even without soil. The condition of the seeds is also another factor. Seed that are infested with pests and diseases do not tend to last longer than those that are free from pests and diseases.
All seeds lose their ability to germinate after a time, but when they do depends on a number of factors, including what kind of seed and how they’re kept. Frozen seeds kept in seed banks, for example, can last up to 20-30 years before they become inert–an example of this is of peas. Some plant seeds can even last up to thousands of years; a 2,000 year old seed from the Meethusela plant germinated a sprout in 2005, for instance.
In general seeds last a while before you absolutely need them to be planted. In many cases, the date that they say on the packages of seeds usually is about the right date. I have tried multiple times to test this hypothesis with my garden. I planted peas, beans, and squash the spring after their fall expiration date. In each case, not all the seeds grew at all, and the few that did germinate, did not bear any of the vegetables that I would be able to pick.
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