Vegetables are not as easy to divide as that. The amount of water and the system of irrigation does not depend on root vs. non-root vegetables, but instead on the type of vegetable, whether or not it has a leafy top, and the growing season of which it is a part. You should decide which vegetables you want to grow, and then research to determine the appropriate amount of water that specific veggie needs, regardless of whether or not it is a root.
All vegetables require at least one inch of water each week during growing season. This should be done once each week (if in sandy soil, more watering is required) — light daily waterings actually reduce the quality of the vegetable.
Vegetables such as broccoli, cabbage, celery, sweet corn, lettuce, potatoes, and radishes have most of their roots in the top 6-12 inches of soil and require frequent watering of about 3/4-1 inch of water. Vegetables such as beans, beets, carrots, cucumbers, muskmelons, peppers, and summer squash have most of their roots in the top 18 inches of soil and withdraw water from the top foot of soil as they approach maturity so they do well with 2 inches of water.
Vegetables also require more water at different stages in their life cycle. Legumes, sweet potatoes, and sweet corn require more water when they flower while tomatoes and squash plants require more water when fruit is developing. Legumes also will develop heavier pods when watered regularly but will grow extra leaves but less fruits and flowers if watered too much. Leafy greens and root vegetables require regular watering throughout their life cycle.
The other answers in this string are correct – each plant has different needs, and those needs should be researched and met to the best of a gardener’s ability. Still, as a very general rule, vegetables with a large, above-ground fruit need more water than other vegetables (squash and pumpkins come into mind, especially).
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