No, but some genetically modified soybean seeds require fewer pesticides. Those usually require greater inputs of water than traditional soybean seeds.
Crops never REQUIRE pesticides to grow. Pesticides fall into three major categories: insecticides (chemicals that kill insects), herbicides (chemicals that kill weeds), and fungicides (chemicals that kill fungal infections). If a crop is grown somewhere it is not attacked by insects, or fungus, and not crowded out by weeds, there’s no benefit to spraying any pesticides.
Many modern breeds of soybeans are engineered to survive herbicides (weed killers) that are deadly to other plants, but that break down faster in the environment and are less toxic to animals than the herbicides used for older soybean breeds. The end result is the soybeans are sprayed with more (less toxic) herbicide.
The amount of herbicides in midwestern rivers (where most of America’s corn an soybeans are grown) have actually dropped since 1996. [citation 1]
To the best of my knowledge, genetically modified soybeans do NOT require more water than comparable kinds of soybeans that are not genetically engineered.
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