Sort of. The Kyoto Protocol does set up a system whereby countries are punished for not making their emissions targets, but it’s relatively weak. Essentially, when a country starts getting off track, the international body offers help and advice. If the country simply fails to meet its target, it has its emissions quota reduced in the next period, thereby making up for the extra emissions. Unfortunately, these measures don’t seem to be very effective, considering most countries are wildly off target for their Kyoto goals. Even more unfortunately, there seems to be no better way of doing things, considering harsher measures to enforce these targets may make countries refuse to cooperate altogether.
Here’s the thing- say whatever you want about the provisions listed in the Kyoto Protocol, but there are no enforcement mechanisms to actually cause change regardless of what is written into the actual treaty. This is really the problem with international law- states are obsessed with their own sovereignty and as a result will not compromise it by yielding to any sort of international structure (the EU and ASEAN are beginning to challenge this, but there’s a ways to go.)
In any case, the only real punishment a country can receive is political, and maybe some trade sanctions depending on how badly it irritates other developed powers, particularly those on the Security Council.
As a result, nations probably would sign a bill with harsher restrictions, provided they believed that no one would follow through or that they would actually be able to.
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