In a simple sense, any animal or object — or even any wind — that carries pollen from one plant to another is effective. (See the second URL cite about how important pollination is, this is a masterful piece of work, congrads to Misters Philip M. Sheridan and David N. Karowe.)
Mother Nature evolved so that some animals are more adapted or more likely to carry pollen than others. Insects do lots of carrying of pollen. Bees are important pollen carriers. But it doesn’t quite end there. Some insects and plants are specifically adapted to one another. There are plants that have never seen a bee. Equally, there are plants, perhaps limited to a particular location, that entirely depend on bees, just because of their local circumstances.
I’ll share a story. One day a friend came into my office at NASA, pale, and asked to sit down. Of course, I asked what was wrong. He’d been at a meeting where his group presented one of the early studies on the Ozone Hole. At that time, and at the rate it was growing before countries wised up and reduced pollutants, it would soon reach South America. And when it reached South America, it was believed it could give the bees cataracts. That is, blind them. And if that happened, they could not pollinate.
And if that happened, many of the plants at the tip of South America would die, too. Turning it into a wasteland.
Not exactly good bedtime reading.
Happily, countries got smart fast about the Ozone Hole, and started banning the use of certain chemicals!
Yes. In some types of wildlife plants where the wind does not blow, as well as some self pollenating plants.
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