The image above is made by Professor John Blamire (Science at a Distance). Go to the link provided for more info.
Basically, having the atomic number of 8 means that the oxygen atom has 8 protons and 8 electrons. Having the atomic mass of 16 mean that the summation of protons and neutrons has to be 16. 8 protons means there are 8 neutrons and that makes up the nucleus, the central most part of the atom. The orbitals in which electrons can travel around the nucleus are of different capacities (at least the first one) The first orbital can only hold 2 electrons, leaving 6 to go into the next orbital, which can hold 8. Since there are only 6 electrons in that orbital, there is space for 2 more and oxygen has a high affinity for electrons. Mmmmm electrons
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