No, there are other agencies that do. The coast guard mostly controls a small amount of water close up to the land. National laws generally extend about 200 miles from the shoreline, so those are under federal control, but those areas are also under state laws depending on which state they are in. Therefore, state officials and feds can also police the oceans in those areas. Past that, international law governs the waters, so the UN polices there.
No, the US Navy and other such forces patrol the open oceans that extend into international waters. The Coast Guard does just that: they guard the US water regions up to the coast, and remain in said waters. The Navy takes care of areas outside US waters, and are responsible for both military and humanitarian objectives. For example, the Navy has assisted in defeating Somali pirates that have been plaguing the African regions and beyond.
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