Australia has a big farming industry with a mix of irrigation and dry land farming. Australia, however, will potentially be facing strenuous challenges with the onset of climate change and decreased precipitation. There are 3 main zones in Australia for agriculture: the high rainfall zone of Tasmania and narrow coastal zone (for dairy and beef production); wheat and sheep zone (winter crops and grazing of sheep); and pastoral zone (dry zone, less fertile soils, land used for large scale grazing of beef cattle and sheep).
What you’re referring to is soil salinity, in which water saturation of the topmost soil caused the saline soil to rise to the surface, making the new topmost layer to become irreversably (as far as our knowledge reaches today) salty and unsuitable for agriculture. Although this is an extremely common problem in Australia, not all Austrailian soil is yet affected, and some soil is only affected to a limited degree, making that soil capable of producing agriculture, with a few mitigation strategies, such as planting gum trees. Experts are currently working on finding more solutions to Australia’s agriculture isses.
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