It’s important to remember that although much of Southern California would indeed be a desert if not actively watered, most of the state’s agriculture is located in the Central Valley, which is at least half “wet” land, naturally irrigated by the Sacramento delta. The southern half, or San Joquin Valley, is what’s known as “semidesert,” according to Wikipedia, which is still fertile (although I assume that its moisture levels are at least partially supplemented).
To answer your question, I guess no one’s sure whether or not all of California’s agriculture is long-term sustainable. Certainly some of it is grown in naturally viable land, but it wouldn’t surprise me if some of the San Joaquin Valley’s farming needs to be stopped in the future, along with commercial-scale farming in many other places.
No. California’s agriculture is not sustainable at all. Mass irrigation is needed to create these crops. Monoculture and Salinization (or increased amount of salt in the soil) has caused many farms to close because the soil is too saline for crops to grow. Mass amounts of fertilizer and pesticide have to be used on a lot of the farms. Below are some links for you to read.
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