Yes, actually more volcano eruptions occur on the ocean floor than on dry land. Such volcanoes are common in the “ring of fire” outlining the Pacific Ocean. The Hawaiian islands are actually a group of (mostly) underwater volcanoes. All in all, there are about 20,000 underwater volcanoes.
Check out this video of an underwater eruption 4,000 feet below the surface from the West Mata volcano near Samoa, Fiji and Tonga:
Volcanic eruptions can happen both above AND below water as far as this question goes. Just like our continents are covered with basins, mountains, volcanoes, etc., so are our ocean’s floors. Regions where volcanic eruptions happen may experience a positive influence on biodiversity, or a negative affect on biodiversity. Some areas turn into thermal vent areas that are extremely productive areas (but are only around for a limited amount of time).
See this link for the 10 most “Incredible Underwater Volcanoes”, I think it will surprise you how many of these you actually know!
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