Religions such as Buddhism, Hinduism, and Jainism are all connected with vegetarianism. Both the beliefs in non-violence and respect for all living creatures are acted out through a vegetarian diet in some religions, though not many actually REQUIRE all members to be vegetarian. In Jainism, vegetarianism is mandatory.
Besides Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, Rastafarianism and Taoism are also religions/ practices that are connected to vegetarianism. The most observant Rastafarians follow a dietary law called Ital, where they cannot consume any food containing chemicals and other preservatives. Old Testament prohibits the consumption of pork and shellfish, which is why most Rastafarians are vegetarian or vegan. Taoists were very dedicated towards preserving nature and taking care of the environment. Some Taoists, such as Master Li Han-Kung prohibited “those who consume meat” from his holy mountain. Therefore, Taoism is also connected with vegetarianism.
In addition to the religions described in the above answers, there have been sects within even Christianity that have connected vegetarianism to religious purity. Vegetarianism was often requisite in various Christian monastic orders. Seventh Day Adventists are another Christian group that practices vegetarianism as a religious principle. There is even an international non-denominational organization called Christian Vegetarian Association that encourages vegetarianism on religious grounds.
Consider along with these answers the fact that not all Hindus or Buddhists are vegetarian in practice – even if they retain faith in the religion. Since there are so many different sects of each religion, any person can argue for meat-eating privileges using the tenants of his or her sect (and many do!)
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