All plants do. They use a process known as photosynthesis to convert carbon dioxide, water and sunlight into glucose and oxygen. The glucose is what the plant uses as an energy source. There recently has been found a sea snail that has the ability to conduct photosynthesis, and this is the only known animal that uses photosynthesis as a food source.
Good question aceleonard, and good answer jaksongitr. I would also like to add to this the idea of filial cannibalism. This is where parents eat their own offspring. This occurs commonly in hamsters, many kinds of fish, and even pigs. I suppose you could argue they are not producing their own food, however, but that they are producing their own offspring and only later, for various reasons, do they end up eating them.
Yes; they are called autotrophs, which are organisms which can create “energy-containing organic molecules from inorganic raw material by using basic energy sources such as sunlight”. Plants absolutely fall into this category; they can be called photoautotrophs. Autotrophs may also get energy from “inorganic chemical reactions” – these are chemoautotrophs.
Here is a list of some autotrophs, including plants, algae and bacteria.
The opposite of an autotroph is a heterotroph.
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