I believe the way that most cities keep vehicles that pollute alot off the road is through state vehicle emissions programs. Of course, each state is different in the way that guidelines and regulations regarding emissions is established. Here in Arizona, if you have a car that is older than 2007 then you must get it inspected 90 days prior to renewing the registration. If your vehicle does not pass then there are options for an exemption, but even if you do obtain one, in most cases, you can only continue driving for a limited amount of time.
Yes. Kolkata has banned vehicles that are 15 years old or older. However, that is operating under the assumption that older vehicles always pollute more than new ones. That may not be the case if the vehicle is well-maintained, and is definitely not the case if the owner of the vehicle has exchanged the internal combustion engine with an electric motor.
As far as America goes, California has the strictest smog regulations. The smog requirements depend on the age of the vehicle, and vehicles built before 1976 are smog-except because they are considered classics. The reason for exempting older vehicles is purely cultural.
Even cars that have been converted to be zero-emission vehicles had to get smogged in California. When my dad converted his 1996 Saturn into an electric vehicle in 2007, he had to take it to a smog station and hold a toilet paper roll up to the smog tester because the car no longer had a tailpipe. They have an exemption for factory-model electric cars.
France is also planning to enact a program to limit the amount of polluting cars in eight major cities, including Paris. According to the proposed regualtions, all vehicles will be assigned one of four categories, based on their efficiency. While vehicles in the most efficient category will be allowed to roam freely, vehicles that are less efficient will be banned in certain areas of the city. These laws are expected to be enacted next year, and will remain so for a three year trial period.
The link below is from a French website, but you can translate it at translate.google.com.
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