It seems to be common behavior in many species. Specific examples are two male penguins (Z and Vielpunkt) who hatched and raised an abandoned egg in a German zoo. Another is a gold retriever which adopted three Bengal tiger cubs and a third would be a ct named Emmy who adopted a squirrel named rocky.
Yes, there are numerous animals that raise adopted offspring. Many primates adopt unconventional young animals. One example would a long tailed macaque monkey that adopted a small kitten at Ubud’s Monkey Forest in Bali.
There is a phenomenon called conspecific brood parasitism that often results in the creation of an adoption-like situation in many duck populations. It occurs when a female duck lays her eggs in the nest of another. The ducklings that hatch from those eggs are then “adopted” by the duck that owns the nest, and raised alongside her own. You can see an example of this here.
Though conspecific brood parasitism is still a mystery, some scientists theorize that it serves as an alternative reproductive strategy. It allows the biological mother duck (the one that “dumps” her eggs in another’s nest) the opportunity to lay multiple sets of eggs without investing time or resources into making a nest or raising the hatchlings.
CBP also, however, provides the adoptive mother duck with an unusually large brood, which can help protect her own offspring from predators. If there are twenty four ducklings in a brood, twelve of which are biologically the same as the mother and twelve of which are adopted “orphans”, the likelihood that the mother duck’s own kin fall victim to predators is reduced, which may help explain the mother duck’s “decision” to raise the orphaned ducklings.
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