Hens and peacocks are related–actually, quite closely. The hen, which is a female chicken, and the peacock share the same kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, and subfamily. So they are both members of the same subfamily of the pheasant family, which is called Phasianinae. From there, they have different genera: the chicken is a member of the genus Gallus, while the peacock is a member of the genus Pavo.
Classifications are simply ways of putting things together in groups. The Linnean system of orders and families is commonly understood to represent the one and only correct way of ordering plants and animals. This is far from true, as that system is largely concerned with what evolved from what. Generally one thing that evolved from another is similar, but that really says nothing about all the possible relationships between living things.
For example, there are plants and animals that create their own light. There is even a plant and an animal that use the same mechanism to create light! So if one is interested in bioluminescence, for example, the Linnean system isn’t always helpful.
The process that’s going on with the taxonomy of flowering plants is an interesting example of experts are still striving to find improved classification systems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angiosperm_Phylogeny_Group But also see this link showing that there have been over a dozen other systems. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_systems_of_plant_taxonomy
So if the question is: What about the relationship interests you? If it’s just their proximity in the evolutionary tree, then as catch22 wrote, they are similar down to the subfamily, but not to the genera. If your question is how similar are their genes, or their behavior? Then you’re might be looking at a topic that’s suitable for your PhD thesis. I.e., there’s a lot left to learn.
Defining similarities will not a small task. For example, the distribution range of peacocks in nature is largely limited to the area around India. But although chickens may have come from a similar place, they have been heavily domesticated for thousands of years, and raised widely around the world. So a lot of things have happened to modern chickens that did not happen to peacocks. Differences? Similarities? Researching could be fun.
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