Yes. Carbon fiber can increase the efficiency of cars because its tougher and lighter than steel.
There is nothing inherent about carbon fiber that would make a car run more efficiently because the carbon fiber is not used in any of the engine or electrical components (the parts of the car that actually generate and consume energy). However, carbon fiber is used in car manufacture because it is strong and light. Consequently, cars can be made lighter without compromising their structure and safety. Lighter cars require less fuel to move the same distance as heavier cars meaning that cars made with carbon fiber would indeed be more efficient in comparison to their metal counterparts.
The benefit of carbon fiber in general is its strength to weight ratio, which is much higher than most metals – taking this into mind as you examine that the majority of a vehicles expended power is towards transporting its own weight, as opposed to its intended purpose of transporting passengers and cargo – then reducing the vehicles weight by using light weight materials that can still provide the necessary structural support does indeed make them more efficient in there fuel use. So, ultimately, yes – if the carbon fiber is employed in such a way (as it generally is) that it lowers the cars weight.
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