Among the subphyla under Phylum Chordata, why is the cephalochordates regarded as closely related to vertebrates?



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    Cephalocordates, or squids, are considered closely related to vertabrates because they have a lot of physical similarities. Their “dorsal nerv cord” is supported by a notochord, which is basically a muscularized rod. Their muscles are divided into V-shaped blocks as well. However, they something found in all (or at least most) true vertebrates, and that’s a large and/or developed brain.


    So basically the similarities can be said to come down to general construct, but they manage to not be vertabrates because of a few key details that are different. 

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