Biogas is created when organic matter decomposes in anaerobic conditions (without oxygen), and often occurs in landfills. It is primarily composed of methane and carbon dioxide, both of which have serious effects on the environment.
The negative effects of biogas include the greenhouse gas effects that cause climate change, smog and other detrimental environmental impacts. However, out of the deliberate production of biogas as an alternative energy source, it is a relatively clean production process. The other output from biogas plants is digestate, but this can be used as a fertilizer in many regions as long as it is kept to high production standards (food crops that use this as a fertilizer can easily be contaminated). The trace contaminant gases in biogas are corrosive, and the production of biogas requires a lot of energy, cutting back on the usable product that can be outsourced. Biogas is also dependant upon the proximity of feedstock (used in plants to create biogas), and there is little control over the rate of production.
Processed and purified biogas can be used for electricity, heat and vehicle fuel. The benefits of this energy source are increased energy security, fewer methane emissions released into the atmospher and economic breaks from complying with EPA guidelines. Biogas can also be upgraded to biomethane and then transported to more energy users, and biogas plants can be employed on a variety of scales, making it more accessible.
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