Ruling Allows Adventurers to Raft the Los Angeles River

LOS ANGELES, August 2 (GreenAnswers Staff) —  Mention the Los Angeles River and maybe the image of Arnold Schwarzenegger being chased through its concrete embankments by a speeding 18-wheeler driven by the Terminator-1000 comes to mind? Or maybe you envision the car race from the movie Grease? Or maybe you didn’t even know that a major river flows through the heart of America’s second biggest city?

Either way, there is a scene on the LA River that is even more unbelievable that just recently took place. That scene is of a group of outdoor enthusiasts partaking on a river rafting adventure right through the heart of the City on the Los Angeles River.

When the EPA recently designated the 51 mile LA River as a “navigable waterway,” a legal grey area emerged. Normally, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the LA County Department of Public Works restrict access to the river. However, after the EPA’s ruling, it became unclear what exactly was allowable on the river. As a result, a group called LA River Expeditions recently took a group of naturalists and reporters, on a four hour guided kayak excursion down the river.

The float trip included three meandering “lush and tranquil” miles through the Sepulveda Basin in the San Fernando Valley and six “sporty” miles of Class-I rapids on the Glendale Narrows near Griffith Park and Dodger Stadium. 

If the EPA and other agencies with jurisdiction allow the trips to continue, LA River Expeditions intends to make these tours a regular occurrence.

Of course, accessing the LA River was not always such an extraordinary act. Like most cities, Los Angeles was built where it is because of the river’s presence. And in 1930, Frederick Law Olmsted Jr, the son of the architect of New York’s Central Park, proposed that the LA River play a similar function for the City of Los Angeles. Unfortunately, the Great Depression intervened and the city and its developers did not want to forgo the profits to be made by developing the river’s banks. Then, in 1938 a massive flood killed 85 people along the river in Compton, sealing the river’s fate to be locked inside concrete flood channels and closed to the public.

However, with the EPA’s recent ruling, and the efforts of river activists such as LA River Expeditions and The River Project, there is now hope that this river running through the heart of LA may once again be accessible to the city that it gave birth to.

Photos via LA River Expeditions

Video via LA Times

Largest Wind Farm and First Major Solar Plant to be Constructed in Russia

[img_assist|nid=181336|title=|desc=|link=none|align=none|width=500|height=375]

A windmill in the Russian Murmansk region.

July 30 (GreenAnswers) — Only days after ground was broken on the largest wind farm in the United States, Russia announced its plans to construct the largest wind farm in that country. The plant will be located in Yeisk, a coastal city on the Sea of Azov. The wind farm will initially generate 50 MW, with it’s capacity eventually reaching 100 MW per year. In comparison, the new wind farm in California aims to eventually produce 3 GW of energy.

The Russian wind project, announced by the state-owned news agency RIA-Novosti, is in line with President Medvedev’s recent attempts to diversify the Russian energy industry, which is primarily focused on oil and gas exports. A combination of private and public investors are putting $200 million into the Yeisk project.

The Rostovteploelektroproekt company, which is working on the project, has estimated (with a quintessentially Russian metaphor) that the energy produced by the new wind farm will be enough to “bake 17.6 trillion loaves of bread” per year.

Russia also announced its plans this week to build the country’s first major solar plant. To be located in Kislovodsk, a city in the North Caucasus region, the solar plant will eventually produce 13 MW of energy and will cost $100 million to construct.

These announcements come at the same time that Russia is suffering through one of its worst droughts and related heat waves on record. On Thursday, temperatures in Moscow reached a record 102 degrees, and some have estimated that as much as one-fifth of the country’s wheat crop has already been lost to drought.

More information on the Yeisk wind project.

Photo credit.

Largest Wind Power Project in the United States Breaks Ground

Mojave, CA, July 27 (GreenAnswers) — The largest wind energy project in the country officially breaks ground on Tuesday. The Alta Wind Energy Center, which will span thousands of acres in the notoriously windy Tehachapi Pass in the Mojave Desert foothills, could ultimately generate three gigawatts of energy, making it three times larger than the current largest wind farm in the United States.

Technically, the Alta Wind Energy Center is a collection of a series of wind farms scattered across the Tehachapi Pass wind corridor, about 70 miles north of Los Angeles. The Tehachapi Pass region, along with the San Gorgonio Pass near Palm Springs and Altamont Pass in Northern California, accounts for 95% of the wind power generation in California.

Ground breaking on Tuesday will be for the first cluster of 290 wind turbines which will spread across 9,000 acres of land, much of which has been leased from private owners. The second batch of 300 turbines is set to be commissioned by 2015.

The turbines for the wind farm are being manufactured by Vestas-American Wind Technology, which is fulfilling the largest single order ever for wind turbines in that company’s history. Incredibly, the blades for the largest turbines will span nearly 100 yards in length.

The Alta Wind Energy Center is being developed by New York based renewable energy company, Terra-Gen Power, which recently secured $1.2 billion in funding for the project.

With the Alta project actually breaking ground, there is an excitement in the wind industry that has been absent for years. This excitement stems from not only beginning work on the country’s largest wind farm, but also from the hope that the ground breaking on Alta will bring other wind projects, such as those championed by T. Boone Pickens, back to life.

Photo courtesy of Terra-Gen Power.

Learn More About Wind Power on GreenAnswers:

‘Five Second’ Rule for Dropped Food Unsafe

[img_assist|nid=178633|title=|desc=|link=none|align=left|width=300|height=315]CHICAGO, July 17 (UPI) — The “five second” rule that says quickly retrieved dropped food is all right to eat should be a “zero second” rule because of bacteria, food scientists say.

Clemson University food scientist Paul Dawson found that salmonella and other dangerous bacteria can remain alive up to four weeks on dry surfaces — like floors — and can be instantly transferred to dropped food.

Location, not time, is the critical factor, researchers say.

Brushing off a bagel you dropped on the sidewalk and eating it is probably safe because the pavement is cleaner than a kitchen floor in terms of the kinds of bacteria found there, Dr. Harley Rotbart, a professor of microbiology and pediatric infectious diseases at the University of Colorado, said.

“The kitchen floor, however, is probably a zero-second zone because the bacteria from uncooked meat and chicken juices are more hazardous than the ’soil’ bacteria outside,” said Rotbart.

Bathroom floors are also zero-second zones because they’re “a great potential source of bacteria and shorter-lived viruses that can cause gastrointestinal illness if ingested,” Rotbart said.

Dr. Paul Dawson explains why the Five Second Rule is bologna:

Learn More About Food Safety on GreenAnswers:

Coal Plant in Borneo Stirs Up Global Opposition

July 13, 2010

The tropical rainforest of Borneo, a large island in Southeast Asia, represents one of the world’s most impressive strongholds of biodiversity. The Borneo rainforest is home to unique species like the orangutan, the Borneo pygmy elephant, and a dwindling population of the highly endangered Sumatran rhinoceros. The nearby Coral Triangle is similarly rich in aquatic animal species, including 75% of all known species of corals in the world. Yet the area’s tropical ecosystems are now under threat, as the government of Malaysia plans to build a 300 megawatt coal plant in Borneo that would damage the rainforest and coral reefs while displacing local people living traditional lifestyles. Stopping the coal plant has become a major goal of international environmental groups trying to curb global warming.

Located on the coast in the Malaysian state of Sabah (part of the island of Borneo), work on the coal plant is slated to begin this summer with the Malaysian government’s backing. However residents of local villages fear seeing their traditional lifestyles transformed by pollution and environmental degradation from the plant, and are putting up a fight. Sulfur dioxide emissions from the plant threatens to cause acid rain pollution that would damage the surrounding forest and coral reefs, while transmission lines designed to connect the coal plant to areas of major energy demand would cut through vast swaths of rainforest and put endangered species under further pressure.

Carbon emissions from the plant would of course also contribute to global warming, another grave threat to Malaysia’s natural ecosystems. “Stopping this coal plant is about more than protecting one strip of beach,” says Jamie Henn, East Asia Director for the global climate action group 350.org. “It’s a symbol of a global fight to protect our increasingly fragile planet against the onslaught of dirty energy.”

Groups like 350.org have launched a web-based campaign to halt construction of the coal plant, centering around an online petition opposing the plant, which will be delivered to Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Tun Razak. Concerned global citizens are also encouraged to leave a note on the prime minister’s Facebook page, urging the Malaysian government to cancel plans for the plant’s construction. “It would be a real shame if you allowed the building of the coal plant in Borneo,” wrote one Facebook user from the Dominican Republic. “It will have a devastating effect on Borneo’s environment and local communities.” Many postings so far on the prime minister’s wall echo similar concerns.

Studies show that Borneo can meet its energy needs without the Sabah coal plant or other fossil fuel energy projects. A variety of Malaysia-based organizations have forged a partnership with the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory at the University of Californian-Berkley to complete a report laying out the options to provide for Borneo’s needs with clean energy. According to the study, biofuels, geothermal energy, hydro-power, and energy efficiency could all serve as alternatives to fossil fuels in the short term, while in the longer term solar power and wave or tidal energy could also contribute to a clean energy future for Borneo.

These measures would help Malaysia achieve goals for reducing the intensity of its greenhouse gas emissions, which the country pledged to meet at last year’s international climate negotiations in Copenhagen. In Copenhagen, the Malaysian government to reducing carbon emission intensity from its economy 40% by the year 2020. Since coal is a very carbon-intense fuel, the Sabah coal plant project could make that goal very difficult to meet.

Though the Malaysian government has already given its approval for the plant, environmental groups hope that showing the prime minister there is global opposition to coal in Sabah could still persuade him to stop the plant’s construction. Initial opposition to the Sabah coal plant has come mainly from local communities that would directly impacted by pollution, and their concerns have so far been largely dismissed by the Malaysian government. But putting the coal plant in the international spotlight could cause the government to re-think its plans. The natural beauty of Malaysia’s rainforest and coral reefs is the nation’s main tourist attraction. If the coal plant comes to be seen as a threat to Malaysia’s image as a tropical paradise, and to tourism in the region, this might provide the impetus for the project to be shelved.

“It’s not too late,” writes Henn, to stop the coal plant in Sabah. “Malaysia’s Prime Minister can still pull the plug on the plant and emerge as a champion for clean energy and sustainable development.”

Photo credit: Hello there

Ticking Biological Clock = More Casual Sex

AUSTIN, Texas, July 9 (UPI) — Women are more willing to engage in “reproduction expediting” sexual activities as their biological clocks tick louder, U.S. researchers suggest.

Psychology graduate students Judith Easton, Jaime Confer and Cari Goetz, and David Buss, a psychology professor at University of Texas at Austin, says reproduction expediting includes one-night stands and adventurous bedroom behavior.The study involved 827 women divided into three groups: high fertility, ages 18-26; low fertility at ages 27-45; and menopausal, ages 46 and older. The respondents answered an online questionnaire about their sexual attitudes and behavior.

The study, published in the Personality and Individual Differences, found women ages 27-45 have a heightened sex drive in response to their diminishing fertility.

Compared with other women, women with low fertility were more likely to experience:

  • Frequent sexual fantasies.
  • Thoughts about sexual activities.
  • More intense sexual fantasies than younger women.
  • A more active sex life and willingness to have a one-night stand.
  • A willingness to have casual sex.

“Our results suggest there is nothing special about the 30s, but that instead these behaviors manifest in all women with declining fertility,” Easton says in a statement. “It may be more difficult to conceive past the age of 35, but our research suggests women’s psychology will continue to motivate them to try until menopause.”

Copyright 2010 United Press International, Inc. (UPI).

Click here to download the full study.

Photo credit.

Learn More About Sex on GreenAnswers:

Global Warming ‘Solution’ Could Backfire

PALO ALTO, Calif., June 29 (UPI) — A cloud-seeding scheme proposed to combat global warming could change global rainfall patterns and result in water shortages, researchers say.

Whitening clouds over the world’s oceans to reflect more sunlight and reduce global warming could in fact increase monsoonal rains over oceans while causing the world’s continents to become drier on average, a Carnegie Institute study released Monday said.

Seeding could make clouds whiter by reducing the size of water droplets making up the clouds, a researcher says.

“Rain clouds, which have big droplets, tend to be gray and absorb sunlight, whereas clouds with smaller droplets tend to be white and fluffy and reflect more sunlight to space,” says study co-author Ken Caldeira of the Carnegie Institution’s Department of Global Ecology.

In computer simulations, whiter clouds reflected more solar radiation and offset the warming effect of the high carbon dioxide levels, Caldeira said.

But in the simulations, the reflective oceanic clouds preferentially cooled the air over the oceans relative to land, setting up a monsoonal air flow which changed existing rainfall patterns, the study said.

“Our basic result calls into question previous assumptions about the impact of this geoengineering scheme,” Caldeira said. “It merits further investigation.”

Click above image to access study (subscription required).

Read More About Climate Engineering:

A C-130 hurricane hunter used by the U.S. Air Force to conduct cloud seeding research.


Environmental Groups Rally to Protect Whales

June 22, 2010

 
As member countries of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) meet in Morocco this week, environmental groups warn that a proposal backed by the Obama administration could roll back hard-earned protections for endangered whale species.  This proposal, which is currently supported by the United States, would legalize commercial whaling by some countries for the first time in over twenty years.
 
Though commercial whaling was officially banned two decades ago, countries like Japan, Norway, and Iceland have continued hunting for whales on a commercial scale.  Norway and Iceland have not acknowledged the international moratorium on whaling, leaving the IWC powerless to control their whaling activity.  Similarly, while Japan has chosen to recognize the moratorium, it continues whaling on a commercial scale under the name of “scientific whaling.”  Japan also does not recognize the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary, which other countries have agreed should represent a permanent “safety zone” for whale populations.  The US-backed proposal at this week’s IWC negotiations would legalize limited whaling by Japan, Iceland, and Norway.  Supporters of the proposal argue legalizing the hunting of whales by these three countries would better enable the IWC to control whale catch quotas, and eventually reduce the number of whales killed each year. 
 
More About Whaling:
Environmental groups like Greenpeace counter that Japan, Norway, and Iceland have already flaunted international whaling laws, and that these countries cannot be counted on to obey any limits the IWC places on their whale catch.  According to Greenpeace, the proposal would simply legitimize commercial whaling again, and tempt countries like China and Korea to seek approval for whaling programs of their own.  “The IWC should focus on closing loopholes and actually clamping down on illegal commercial whaling,” states the website for Greenpeace USA.   
 
Greenpeace activists have long been a familiar site at IWC meetings; the environmental organization has worked for decades to protect whales, and helped generate public support for the moratorium on commercial whaling.  However other groups, newer to saving the whales, have also launched campaigns to preserve the whaling moratorium.  One, an international progressive organization known as Avaaz.org is gathering more than a million names on a petition.  The constantly updated petition list is still accumulating names, and Avaaz says the petition will be received in person by Australia’s environment minister.  Enormous public support for the whaling moratorium has caused some countries to think twice about voting to legalize whaling. 
 
Back in the US support for a continued ban on commercial whaling has also been growing, and has sometimes come from unexpected places.  On Monday, June 21, seventeen US senators released a letter to the Obama administration, in which they urged the US to reject legalized whale hunting and push for a continued whaling moratorium.  The lead authors of the letter were Senators Susan Collins (R-ME) and Carl Levin (D-MI).  The letter warned that the proposal to legitimize some whaling would “set quotas that are not based on sound scientific principals, and reward those countries that have circumvented the moratorium by granting them exclusive quotas to hunt whales commercially.”
 
More About Human Threats to Whales:
As countries work to finalize their positions on the whaling moratorium at this week’s IWC meetings, it’s impossible to say how the final vote will go.  However the move to legalize commercial whaling by Japan, Norway, and Iceland seems to have triggered a public outcry that has once again made whale conservation a matter of international concern.
 

Debate Over Oregon Coal Plant Affects National Climate Strategy

If environmental, health, and consumer groups get their way, Oregon may become the first state in the country to phase out reliance on a large, dirty coal plant in a timescale consistent with what scientists say is required to prevent catastrophic global warming.  Should the plant’s owner, state decision-makers, and other affected parties settle on a timely closure plan, the agreement could pave the way for the retirement of coal plants across the country and the major source of global warming pollution they represent.
 
At issue is Oregon’s Boardman Coal Plant, operated and partly owned by the private utility company Portland General Electric (PGE).  The only coal plant within Oregon state lines, Boardman is Oregon’s largest single source of carbon dioxide, mercury emissions, and other harmful pollutants.  Earlier this year, after Boardman was found by state agencies to be polluting out of compliance with the Clean Air Act, PGE proposed to deal with clean air regulations by installing limited pollution controls and closing Boardman by the year 2020.  Environmental groups argue this timeline isn’t quick enough. 
 
“PGE needs to get serious about phasing out Oregon’s only coal plant sooner rather than later,” said Cesia Kearns, an organizer with the Oregon Sierra Club’s Beyond Coal campaign.  “PGE’s offer to consider closing the plant by 2020 comes with significant strings attached – namely that Boardman would continue to operate out of compliance with the Clean Air Act for another decade.”  Environmental and consumer groups propose PGE make the transition off Boardman by 2014, allowing it to avoid installing expensive pollution controls required after that date.  The issue will come to a head this summer, when Oregon’s Public Utilities Commission will decide whether keeping Boardman open until 2020 is a good use of ratepayer money.
 
Charged with ensuring utilities look out for the best interests of their customers, the Public Utilities Commission must decide whether Boardman is a good investment.  Factors include the liklihood of federal carbon pricing that could make coal more expensive, the doubtful ability of PGE to bring the plant into Clean Air Act compliance without major costs, and public opinion trends which show Oregonians increasingly don’t want their electricity bills tied to polluting fuels.  Utilities have traditionally viewed coal plants as a good investment because they offer constant, and until now dependably cheap electricity.  Yet in Oregon that equation may be changing.  “It is in the best interest of Oregonians to close Boardman by 2014,” said Tyler Gerlach, a student at Linfield College.  “The Public Utilities Commission is supposed to look out for our best interest, not that of a private corporation.”
 
Oregon students have been at the forefront of the push to close Boardman early.  This year student governments at ten Oregon colleges, universities, and high schools passed resolutions urging a timely transition away from the coal plant, almost all singling out 2014 as their preferred date.  Collectively, these student governments represent a constituency of over one hundred thousand Oregon students.  “Boardman’s going to close eventually anyway,” said Lindsy Gjesvold, a student at McMinnville High School.  “Let’s do it on a timescale that makes sense.” 
 
Should Boardman close by 2014, it would set a precedent for other coal plants all over the US.  Though environmental and health activists are pushing for the retirement of many of these plants, few coal plant battles have progressed as far as the one over Boardman.  The Sierra Club’s national Beyond Coal campaign has set a goal of replacing the whole US coal fleet with cleaner energy by 2030 – and acheiving the first round of closures in the next few years would bode well for that objective.  On the other hand if plants like Boardman continue burning coal for the next decade, it would prove very challenging to wean the US off coal within twenty years. 
 
PGE maintains keeping Boardman open until 2020 is necessary to provide cheap electricity.  But the plant’s opponents argue the utility may not actually  have the best interests of consumers at heart.  “The costs of pollution controls [if Boardman stays open until 2020] ultimately will be passed on to PGE’s customers,” said Kearns.  “This makes and earlier closure date more desireable for our health, environment, and pocketbooks.”

Photo credit: Smokestack at Boardman Coal Plant

Undercover Investigation Exposes Extreme Animal Abuse at Dairy Farm

Warning: The video below has scenes of extreme animal cruelty. You may prefer to read the description rather than watching the actual video.

CLEVELAND, May 26 — During a four-week investigation between April and May, Chicago-based non-profit Mercy For Animals (MFA) captured on hidden camera  shocking scenes of severe animal abuse on a dairy farm. According to MFA, the video was shot by an undercover investigator at the Conklin Dairy Farms in Plain City, Ohio.

During the investigation MFA’s investigator documented farm workers:

  • Violently punching young calves in the face, body slamming them to the ground, and pulling and throwing them by their ears
  • Routinely using pitchforks to stab cows in the face, legs and stomach
  • Kicking “downed” cows (those too injured to stand) in the face and neck – abuse carried out and encouraged by the farm’s owner
  • Maliciously beating restrained cows in the face with crowbars – some attacks involving over 40 blows to the head
  • Twisting cows’ tails until the bones snapped
  • Punching cows’ udders
  • Bragging about stabbing, dragging, shooting, breaking bones, and beating cows and calves to death

MFA has shared the video with the City Prosecutor’s Office of Marysville and is pushing for employees of the facility to be criminally prosecuted for violating Ohio’s animal cruelty laws.

MFA, which is dedicated to “promoting nonviolence towards all sentient beings” stated that “the deplorable conditions uncovered at Conklin Dairy Farms highlight the reality that animal agriculture is incapable of self-regulation and that meaningful federal and state laws must be implemented and strengthened to prevent egregious cruelty to farmed animals.”